sexta-feira, 13 de março de 2009

Friday the 13th

Besides the great day that THIS Friday 13th represents (my blog was created a couple of minutes ago) there are several details about this day and this number, specially when they get together.
So, shortly I'll go through the general meaning of "Friday", followed by "13" and then the explosive mix.

About Friday:
- comes from the Old English frigedæg, meaning the day of Frige the Anglo-Saxon form of Frigg, a West Germanic translation of Latin dies Veneris, "day (of the planet) Venus." In most Romance languages is derived from Latin dies Veneris, "day (of the planet) Venus" (a translation of Greek Aphrodites hemera) such as vendredi in French, venerdì in Italian, viernes in Spanish, and vineri in Romanian. In most of the Indian languages, Friday is Shukravar (or a derived variation of Sukravar), named for Shukra, the Sanskrit name of the planet Venus. In other Indo-European languages the day is not related to the planet Venus. Russian uses an ordinal number for this day of the week-- piatnítsa, meaning "fifth." Similarly, the Portuguese is sexta-feira, the sixth day. ....
- The Jewish Sabbath begins at sunset on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday.
In Christianity Good Friday is the Friday before Easter. It commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus.
In Islam, Friday is the day of public worship in mosques.
Black Friday refers to any one of several historical disasters that happened on Fridays
In the United States, Black Friday is also the nickname of the day after Thanksgiving, the first day of the traditional Christmas shopping season.
Casual Friday (also called Dress-down Friday or Aloha Friday) is a relaxation of the formal dress code employed by some corporations for that one day of the week.

About the 13:
- There were thirteen participants at the Last Supper. Tradition states that Judas Iscariot, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, was the 13th to sit at the table.
Thirteen was once associated with the Epiphany by Christians, as it is said the child Jesus received the Magi on his thirteenth day of life. (CHRISTIANITY)
- 13 signifies the age at which a boy matures and becomes a Bar Mitzvah (Age of 12 for Girls, or Bat Mitzvah).
The number of principles of Jewish faith according to Maimonides
According to the Torah, God has 13 Attributes of Mercy
The number of circles, or "nodes", that make up Metatron's Cube in Kaballistic teachings. (JUDAISM)
- In Mesoamerican divination, 13 is the number of important cycles of fortune/misfortune (see Trecena).
- The number of Norse gods (there were 12) at a banquet that was crashed by the evil spirit Loki (making 13) who killed Baldr with an arrow/spear made out of mistletoe using Hodr, thus marking the beginning of Ragnarok.
- Halloween's date is 13 reversed.
- There are 13 players in a rugby league team.
- Basketball Hall of Famer Wilt Chamberlain wore number 13. Three NBA teams, plus the Harlem Globetrotters, have retired his number.
- In Formula 1, no driver has had the number 13 on his car since 1976.
- The number of colonies that formed the United States. The original flag had thirteen stars, one for each state. New stars have since been added whenever a new state joins the union, but the idea of adding stripes for new states was soon dropped, so the American flag to this day has thirteen horizontal stripes: six white ones and seven red ones.
- Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, marking the beginning of Caesar's civil war and the eventual death of the Roman Republic.
- In Thailand, the traditional Thai New Year (Songkran Day) is on April 13th.

About Friday the 13th:
- One theory states that it is a modern amalgamation of two older superstitions: that thirteen is an unlucky number and that Friday is an unlucky day.
  • In numerology, the number twelve is considered the number of completeness, as reflected in the twelve months of the year, twelve signs of the zodiac, twelve hours of the clock, twelve tribes of Israel, twelve Apostles of Jesus, twelve gods of Olympus, etc., whereas the number thirteen was considered irregular, transgressing this completeness. There is also a superstition, thought by some to derive from the Last Supper or a Norse myth, that having thirteen people seated at a table will result in the death of one of the diners.
  • Friday has been considered an unlucky day at least since the 14th century's The Canterbury Tales, and many other professions have regarded Friday as an unlucky day to undertake journeys or begin new projects. Black Friday has been associated with stock market crashes and other disasters since the 1800s. It has also been suggested that Friday has been considered an unlucky day because, according to Christian scripture and tradition, Jesus was crucified on a Friday.
- Another theory by author Charles Panati, one of the leading authorities on the subject of "Origins" maintains that the superstition can be traced back to ancient myth: The actual origin of the superstition, though, appears also to be a tale in Norse mythology. Friday is named for Frigga, the free-spirited goddess of love and fertility. When Norse and Germanic tribes converted to Christianity, Frigga was banished in shame to a mountaintop and labeled a witch. It was believed that every Friday, the spiteful goddess convened a meeting with eleven other witches, plus the devil - a gathering of thirteen - and plotted ill turns of fate for the coming week. For many centuries in Scandinavia, Friday was known as "Witches' Sabbath."

- Another theory about the origin of the superstition traces the event to the arrest of the legendary Knights Templar. According to one expert: The Knights Templar were a monastic military order founded in Jerusalem in 1118 C.E., whose mission was to protect Christian pilgrims during the Crusades. Over the next two centuries, the Knights Templar became extraordinarily powerful and wealthy. Threatened by that power and eager to acquire their wealth, King Philip secretly ordered the mass arrest of all the Knights Templar in France on Friday, October 13, 1307 - Friday the 13th.

So, that's it. Today is Friday 13th, last month was the same and... wait for November and there we are again. Actually, 3 times a year is the maximum a Friday 13 can occur. Minimum is 1. So this year we are lucky ;)

For further details follow the links:
http://www.howstuffworks.com/friday-thirteenth.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friday_the_13th
http://urbanlegends.about.com/cs/historical/a/friday_the_13th.htm




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